Electronic related background information, math and physics.
Average & effective values
This article contains a list with waveforms and their derivative for the average and effective values of common waveforms. Also the form-factor and crest-factor of voltages and currents will be explained.
For complex waveforms, it's often inadequately to specify only the effective or average value. There are sometimes limits on parameters such as ringing, overshoot and rise and fall times, and must therefore be specified.
This article describes the physical characteristics of magnetic circuits and a summary of the elementary equations with regard to magnetic systems. They can be used for converting magnetic parameters from measurements.